Pervasive Development Disorders Essay
There are several disorders categorized under pervasive developmental disorders which are as a result of impairment in a variety of areas of development. They are diagnosed due to the presence of several exhibited symptoms according to the type of developmental disorder. The five types of disorders are Rett’s disorder, Persuasive development disorder, Childhood disintegrative disorder Autistic Disorder, and Asperger’s Disorder.
The disease harms the normal development of sections of the brain which control communication and social interaction. This may lead to aggressive and even injury to self behaviors in adults and children who are affected by the disease. They portray abnormal body movement which may consist of repeated body movements. Such victims also exhibit unusual attachment to set routines and objects and will vehemently resist change. It is common for children with PDD to be in the normal pervasive development until age twenty four to thirty months when marked differences in speech, play and social interaction are noticed. The exhibition of these signs alone though is not enough to diagnose PDD as it usually is a combination of many challenges. An autistic child usually displays challenges in communication, sense, behavior, and social interaction.
As opposed to popular belief, autistic people show diverse emotions which though vary in degree. They respond to their surrounding in different ways just like normal people. The disorders though make it difficult for them to control the reactions of their bodies and minds. Studies have devoted a lot of time into establishing the cause of pervasive development disorders. While no specific cause has been established recent studies link disorders to neurological or biological brain differences. Families have also shown a tendency towards PDD although no genetic gene has been established leading to researchers postulating the involvement of several genes.
As the symptoms of PDD are varied children suspected of PDD need to be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team in order to establish PDD. Parental input is specifically crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis. It is important to establish an accurate diagnosis as this will lead to appropriate educational treatment plan. Sensitive imaging studies show that the cerebellum and the limbic system are the main brain areas mainly affected. At present the main pillars of PDD treatment are family support, specialized education, and behavioral psychotherapy.
In 1998 there were reports that Secretin caused great improvements in autistic children. Secretin is a hormone produced in the gut to help with digestion. Three children injected with Secretin as a diagnostic test for intestinal disorders displayed marked improvement. A hundred children treated with Secretin, half reported improvements in behavioral, digestive and sensory challenges. Two hundred children injected with Secretin showed only an improvement in 10 percent of the recipients making it unclear as whether improvements were as a result of Secretin or other therapies. It is common knowledge that the brain is a receptor of a variety of hormones. Such hormones like Vasoactive are similar to Secretin which binds to brain receptors.
Studies have also established that a diet Low in the Trytophan amino acid result in a worsening of autistic symptoms in adults. Patients continued to display the usual autistic behaviors. Their capacity of social interaction remained unchanged though there was a marked increase in unhappiness and anxiety. Trytophan is an amino acid which is obtained from protein which is usually converted by the body into Serotonin a regulator of behavior and mood. Previous study had suggested that a deficiency in the production of Serotonin may cause PDD. Another study made this argument more plausible. Patients who took Luvox a Serotonin boosting drug became more interactive and less aggressive. The treatment ld to improvements in patients lives as of the thirty adults undergoing the test, two moved out of homes into apartments though under supervision, and one was able to maintain a job. This indicates that the drug may warrant tests in children and adolescents too.
The understanding of PDD has developed greatly since its first description by Dr. Leo Kunner in 1943. Many of the early searches for cures have been found to be unrealistic from the perspective of the current understanding of brain based disorders. A better understanding of the disease has however resulted to the development of improved mechanisms of coping with these disorders. Some of the challenges may reduce or disappear as people age. With the right type of interventions, many of the behaviors associated with PDD may be changed positively to present a semblance of normalcy. Many autistic patients will however exhibit the symptoms of PDD to a certain degree in the duration of their lives. Over five hundred thousand people in the US have PDD. This makes PDD the most common developmental disorder yet many a professional in the vocational, medical and educational fields remain ignorant of the effects of PDD on people and how to work with autistic individuals. Researchers are everyday trying to find a cure for PDD, maybe one day they will be successful and autistic individuals will be given a chance to live life without disability.